Saturday, March 14, 2020
A Summary Essays A Summary Essay A Summary Essay Have many people been engrossed in thoughts that the way the essay is written and delivered influences that fact whether the author will be able to persuade people or not? Moreover, the argument the author presents in the work is one of the most important factors that defines the popularity of his/her approach among people concerned. The article by Amartya sen Ã¢â¬Å"A World Not Neatly DividedÃ¢â¬ is one of the best examples of the good organisation of the argument. The main statement that Amartya Sen makes in this article is as following: when trying to gain insight into various conflicts that take place nowadays and that occurred in the past, many scientists and politicians support the Ã¢â¬Å"civilization approachÃ¢â¬ (Sen 1). In other words, people are considered only from the religious point of view (Sen 1). For instance, individuals are divided into Ã¢â¬Å"the WesternÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"IslamicÃ¢â¬ words (Sen 1). However, Amartya Sen proceeds that as in every country there are representatives of other nationalities, it is impossible to generalise all people only to one category, for instance, Muslims (1). Additionally, another supporting information is that in every nation there are people who are atheists or support the religious beliefs of another religious group that can be not so big as the main one; however, it is also of great importance for realizing the country and people on the whole (Sen 1). In summary, Sen states that as every person has his/her own traits of character, persuasions, beliefs, and personal history, it is not reasonable to explain peoples actions only from the point of view of civilizations (2). Disseminating such approach among people, such persons increase the probability of wars (Sen 2). Except argumentative essays, there are is also a great deal of other essays that are used in different fields for various purposes, including comparison, critical, contrast, exploratory, narrative, and other essays. Argumentative essays are interesting because in order to persuade people to take a specific stand, it is vital to state as many arguments as it is possible; otherwise almost nobody will believe you. Further, so as to prepare a good argumentative essay, it is critical to learn the subject raised in the essay very deeply. As a result, before publishing such a work, the author makes a thorough analysis.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Fatherland, by Frederick Kempe - Term Paper Example Remember that Germany has been declared guilty for the two wars of the 20th century. In addition, 11 million victims were persecuted and murdered during the holocaust including 6 million Jews, many children and women, gays, lesbians, gypsies and others who were labeled as outcasts by Nazis. During the start of the Nazi movement, most Jewish groups and establishments were boycotted and laws were implemented to discriminate against the Jews. Such laws included a prohibition against mixed marriages, a prohibition against Jews holding government positions, and a prohibition against their appearance in public places. Jews were also required to wear yellow stars to identify them in public areas. They were soon moved to ghetto or confided spaces. Now that they are building a new German generation, what would be the effect on this to the Jews? How would a new German generation run the world if given the chance? East Germany is testing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to integrate itself before it integrates the rest of Eastern Europe into the European Union. And GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s military is dispatching its troops abroad on a combat mission for the first time since World War II Ã¢â¬â to former Yugoslavia, a place of heart-stopping German atrocities. It was a mission whose symbolism spoke both of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growing influence and of its shrinking self-constraints. Demographic change had brought the country its largest ethnic minority ever, the Turks. But whether they would happily co-exist or would suffer the same fate with the Jews, that remains to be seen. One long-term side effect of the Third Reich is the breaking of natural relationship between a German and a Jew. The link between victim and perpetrator is unnatural. The ghosts of the past keep them at odds. But there are those who are not affected by the past. The author recounts
Monday, February 10, 2020
Work strategic - Case Study Example The Real Chocolate Company, together with other chocolate and confectionery industry players must legally comply with government regulations. This includes health, sanitation and safety regulations. Product labeling regulations must be strictly followed. Franchise operations must abide with registration and disclosure of information. Candy taxes, vending machine restrictions and other legislations such as levels of lead in candies, which are introduced in various states in US, would affect the costs of chocolates and confectionery products. On the other hand, the increase in sugar imports to the country would be beneficial to the supply needed by the company. Health concerns that might affect the sales of chocolates is the increasing problem of obesity. Sweets, such as chocolates, and other high calorie products may causes obesity when taken irresponsibly. Although, health benefits of the product, especially dark chocolates, organic and natural chocolates, appeals to health-conscious consumers and old people. High income groups, Asians, and younger people are becoming the target market of gourmet chocolates. These groups have different behaviours and needs, but they serve as an opportunity for sales and growth when exploited. Prices of primary raw materials, like chocolates and nuts, used for the manufacture of gourmet chocolat... Uncertainty in the supply and the price of commodities may affect the production and operation of Real Chocolate Company stores and franchises. 1.2. Porter's 5 Forces Competitive analysis checklist was created to identify the five forces of competition. See Appendix A. Analysis shows that the market is highly competitive. Direct competitors have larger annual sales against the Real Chocolate Company. The power of suppliers is also high. The flow of supply of raw materials such as chocolates and sugar affects the production directly. Ease of entry into the chocolate market is high. Chocolate manufacture is simple and there are variations in the way the products are created and served. The company is almost dependent on the sales in franchise stores, which can be considered as customers of the Real Chocolate Company. Other sources of revenues such as company owned stores and non-traditional outlet is relatively low on the cash flow. 2. Internal Analysis 2.1. Strengths and Weaknesses "Perfection in Handmade Gourmet Chocolates" is a very good motto for both customer perspective as well as the employee's morale. This motto demonstrates the commitment of the company towards freshness and quality produced chocolates. Perfection means quality. Handmade illustrates freshness. Customer impression is important to create customer satisfaction and loyalty. Employee's morale and attitude is also guided by the motto since it reveals the responsibility of not just the management but also to the rest of the stakeholders in the company. This is a responsibility of producing quality chocolates from start to finish, from raw materials to packaged chocolates. The larger portions of chocolates in the packaging and the wide
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Laurence Olivier Essay The original classification of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËComediesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËTragediesÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËHistoriesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËRoman playsÃ¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t adequately describe all of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays, and scholars have come up with more names to do so. The most widely used categories are Ã¢â¬ËRomance PlaysÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËProblem PlaysÃ¢â¬â¢, and ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËTragicomedy PlaysÃ¢â¬â¢. The plays in those categories have much in common, but there are enough differences to prevent some of them to fall into all three. The WinterÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, for example is a play that does have the features of all three, however. A tragicomedy is a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy, although it has the features of both. Tragedies are usually focused almost exclusively on the central character, the tragic hero (although ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies can sometimes be a double tragedy, with two tragic heroes, like Romeo and Juliet). The audience has insights into his mind and goes deeply in, as he does in Macbeth or Hamlet. Comic plays, on the other hand, remove that focus and the concerns are diversified so that the action is made up of the stories of several characters, particularly pairs of lovers. The shadows in human emotions are usually minor in the comedies: they are such things as misunderstandings, playful deceptions and so on. Plays that fall between the two stools of tragedy and comedy are sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬ËProblem Plays. Ã¢â¬â¢ so the whole area of classification is a very difficult one. It shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be necessary to classify them but scholars need a language in which to talk about the plays. The Merchant of Venice can be seen as a tragicomedy. It has a comic structure but one of the central characters, Shylock, looks very much like a tragic character. The play has a comedy ending with the lovers pairing off but we are left with taste in the mouth of the ordeal of Shylock, destroyed by a combination of his own faults and the persecution of the lovers who enjoy that happy ending. The feeling at the end of the play is neither joy nor misery. The play has a decidedly comic structure but there is also a powerful tragic story. It can therefore be called a tragicomedy. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢ tragicomedies usually have improbable and complex plots; characters of high social class; contrasts between villainy and virtue; love of different kinds at their centre; a hero who is saved at the last minute after a touch-and- go experience; surprises and treachery. The WinterÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale and Cymbeline are two plays that fit that tragicomical pattern. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays generally accepted as tragicomedy plays are: * Cymbeline * The WinterÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragedy plays One of the main features of Renaissance art is that it was inspired by classical art and philosophy. This is evident in the work of such artists as Michelangelo who, caught up in the spirit of Humanism that was sweeping across Europe, focused on the human form. Focusing on the human form during Mediaeval times would have been impossible as it would have been a distraction from the necessary focus on God. The essence of Humanistic art was that human beings were created in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s image so it was possible for Michelangelo even to portray God Ã¢â¬â as a beautiful and physically powerful man with realistic human features, presented as perfection Ã¢â¬â in fact, the human form at its most beautiful. Artists became anatomists, going as far as buying human bodies for dissection. The result was a new realism in the representation of human beings in art. Shakespeare is, in a way, the Michelangelo of literature. That he could, in one play, Othello, written four hundred years ago, represent what we can recognise as a modern psychopath and a modern alcoholic, in Iago and Cassio respectively, is incredible. Iago is a fully realised physochological character just as the David is a fully realized man physically. Greek drama was an important model for Renaissance drama after the flat, unrealistic morality plays of the mediaval centuries. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, defined tragedy and asserted that it was the noblest and most serious, dignified and important form of drama. Many of the plays of the Renaissance resembled those Greek tragedies. In several of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays there is a central protagonist who undergoes a harrowing experience as he is brought down from his lofty height, ending up dead. There is also a special feeling created in an observer of those Shakespearedramas, similar to the feeling described by Aristotle as the effect of tragedy on an observer. Critics thus thought of those Shakespeare plays as tragedies and that notion has remained with us toÃ this day, although many of those interested inShakespeare are now thinking differently about the plays. There are still teachers, though, who teach the Ã¢â¬ËtragediesÃ¢â¬â¢ as though they were Aristotelian tragedies and miss a great deal of what those plays are doing. In his Poetics Aristotle outlines tragedy as follows: The protagonist is someone of high estate; a prince or a king. He is like us Ã¢â¬â perhaps a bit different in his level of nobility so that we can both identify with him and admire him as a man as well as respect him for his high estate. The protagonist has a Ã¢â¬Ëtragic flawÃ¢â¬â¢ in his character which makes him contribute to his own destruction. This can take the form of an obsession. The flaw is often part of his greatness but it also causes his downfall. The flaw causes the protagonist to make mistakes and misjudgments. That in turn begins to alienate him from his supporters so that he becomes isolated. He begins to fall from his high level. He struggles to regain his position but fails and he comes crashing down. He eventually recognises his mistakes, but too late. An important aspect is the suffering he undergoes, which the audience observes and identifies with. We experience Ã¢â¬ËpityÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËterrorÃ¢â¬â¢ as we watch what seems to us an avoidable suffering. At thend the air is cleared by the restoration of the order that existed before the events of the story and we experience what Aristotle calls Ã¢â¬ËcatharsisÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â a feeling of relief and closure. Using the term Ã¢â¬ËtragedyÃ¢â¬â¢ about ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays invites attempts to fit them to the Aristotelian pattern but none of them fits. Othello seems to conform to the pattern but when one thinks about it, Othello, superficially resembling a tragic hero, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even seem to be the main character in the play. It can be seen as a modern psychological drama about a psychopath who manipulates everyone around him just for fun Ã¢â¬â just because he has nothing better to do Ã¢â¬â and destroying other human beings gives him pleasure or is necessary because they get in his way. Othello may seem to have a fatal flaw Ã¢â¬â too trusting, gullible Ã¢â¬â but so do all the other characters, because Iago has deceived them all with his psychopathic charm and a deliberate effort of making himself appear trustworthy. Every misjudgment Othello makes is the hard work of Iago. Easily manipulated? Jealous? Does he have all those Ã¢â¬Ëtragic flawsÃ¢â¬â¢ as well? The feeling at the end is not quite Aristotle either. Perhaps it is more of a disgust for Iago than pity for Othello, who comes across as more stupid than tragic. And to make things more complicated, our feeling of pity is directed more to Desdamona. And yet some teachers miss the meaning of this play by their insistence on teaching it as an Aristotelian tragedy. Antony and Cleopatra is sometimes called a Ã¢â¬Ëdouble tragedyÃ¢â¬â¢. While Othello appears to fit the Aristotelian pattern because of the huge charisma of Othello at the beginning of the play Antony and Cleopatra cannot fit it in any shape or form. In tragedy the focus is on the mind and inner struggle of the protagonist. The emotional information comes to the audience from that source. In comedy the information comes from a variety of sources and the comic effect is produced by a display of many different points of view, coming at the audience from different angles. That is exactly what happens in Antony and Cleopatra , so we have something very different from a Greek tragedy. What we have is a miracle Ã¢â¬â a tragic feeling coming out of a comic structure. So what is Shakespearean tragedy? Perhaps there is no such thing. And yet we can identify a tragic feeling and even a cathartic effect in some of the plays. We must be very careful not to insist on fitting them to any pattern because that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help us understand the plays. We must look elsewhere for our understanding of them. Moreover, all of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays have elements of both tragedy and comedy, sometimes very finely balanced, creating effects that Aristotle could never have dreamt of. List of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragedy Plays * Antony and Cleopatra * King Lear * Macbeth * Othello * Romeo Juliet * Titus Andronicus. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Comedy Plays Early Greek comedy was in sharp contrast to the dignity and seriousness of tragedy. Aristophanes, the towering giant of comedy, used every kind of humour from the slapstick through sexual jokes to satire and literary parody. Unlike tragedy, the plots didnÃ¢â¬â¢t originate in traditional myth and legend, but were the product of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s creative imagination. The main theme was political and social satire. Over the centuries comedy moved away from those themes to focus on family matters, notably a concentration on relationships and the complications of love. Such a universal theme was bound to survive and, indeed, it has travelled well, from Greece through Roman civilization and, with the Renaissance preoccupation with things classical, into Renaissance Europe, to England and the Elizabethans, and into the modern world of the twentieth and twenty first centuries, where we see Greek comedy alive and well in films and television. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s comedies (or rather the plays of Shakespeare that are usually categorised as comedies), just as in the case with he tragedies, do not fit into any slot. They are generally identifiable as the comedies of Shakespeare in that they are full of fun, irony and dazzling wordplay. They also abound in disguises and mistaken identities with very convoluted plots that are difficult to follow (try relating the plot of A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream to someone! ), with very contrived endings. Any attempt at describing these plays as a group canÃ¢â¬â¢t go beyond that superficial outline. The highly contrived endings are the clue to what these plays, all very different, are about. Take The Merchant of Venice for example Ã¢â¬â it has the love and relationship element. As usual there are two couples. One of the women is disguised as a man through most of the text Ã¢â¬â typical of Shakespearian comedy Ã¢â¬â but the other is in a very unpleasant situation Ã¢â¬â a young Jewess seduced away from her father by a shallow, rather dull young Christian. The play ends with the lovers all together, as usual, celebrating their love and the way things have turned out well for their group. That resolution has come about by completely destroying a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The Jew, Shylock is a man who has made a mistake and been forced to pay dearly for it by losing everything he values, including his religious freedom. It is almost like two plays Ã¢â¬â a comic structure with a personal tragedy imbedded in it. The Ã¢â¬ËcomedyÃ¢â¬â¢ is a frame to heighten the effect of the tragic elements. The Christians are selfish and shallow and cruel beyond imagination and with no conscience whatsoever. This is the use of the comic form to create something very deep and dark. Twelfth Night is similar Ã¢â¬â the humiliation of a man the in-group doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like. As in The Merchant of Venice, his suffering is simply shrugged off in the highly contrived comic ending. Not one of these plays, no matter how full of life and love and laughter and joy, it may be, is without a darkness at its heart. Much Ado About Nothing , like Antony and Cleopatra (a Ã¢â¬ËtragedyÃ¢â¬â¢ with a comic structure) is a miracle of creative writing. Shakespeare seamlessly joins an ancient mythological love story and a modern invented one, weaving them together into a very funny drama in which light and dark chase each other around like clouds and sunshine on a windy day, and the play threatens to fall into an abyss at any moment and emerges from that danger in a highly contrived ending once again. Like the Ã¢â¬ËtragediesÃ¢â¬â¢ these plays defy categorisation. They all draw our attention to a range of human experience with all its sadness, joy, poignancy, tragedy, comedy, darkness, lightness, and its depths. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Comedy Plays * AllÃ¢â¬â¢s Well That Ends Well * The Comedy of Errors * As you Like It * Cymbeline * LoveÃ¢â¬â¢s Labours Lost * Measure for Measure * The Merry Wives of Windsor * The Merchant of Venice * Twelfth Night * Two Gentlemen of Verona ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s History Plays Just as ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËcomediesÃ¢â¬â¢ have some dark themes and tragic situations while the Ã¢â¬ËtragediesÃ¢â¬â¢ have some high comic moments, the ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ plays contain comedy, tragedy and everything in between. All ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays are dramas written for the entertainment of the public and ShakeseareÃ¢â¬â¢s intention in writing them was just that Ã¢â¬â to entertain. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t Shakespeare, but Shakespearian scholars, who categorised his plays into those areas of tragedy, comedy and history Ã¢â¬â as well as Ã¢â¬ËproblemÃ¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬ËRomanÃ¢â¬Ë. Unfortunately, our appreciation of the plays is often affected by our tendency to look at them in that limited way. Most of the plays have an historical element Ã¢â¬â the Roman plays, for example, are historical but scholars donÃ¢â¬â¢t refer to those Roman plays (Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus etc.) ashistory plays. The plays that we normally mean when we refer to the Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢ plays are the ten plays that cover English history from the twelfth to the sixteenthcenturies, and the 1399-1485 period in particular. Each play is named after, and focuses on, the reigning monarch of the period. In chronological order of setting, these are King John, Richard II, Henry IV Parts Iand II, Henry V, Henry VI Parts I, II and III, Richard III and Henry VIII, although Shakespeare didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write them in that order. The plays dramatise five generations ofÃ¢â¬â¢ Medieval power struggles. For the most part they depict the Hundred Years War with France, from Henry V to Joan of Arc, and the Wars of the Roses, between York and Lancaster. We should never forget that they are works of imagination, based very loosely on historical figures. Shakespeare was a keen reader of history and was always looking for the dramatic impact of historical characters and events as he read. Today we tend to think of those historical figures in the way Shakespeare presented them. For example, we think of Richard III as an evil man, a kind of psychopath with a deformed body and a grudge against humanity. Historians can do whatever they like to set the record straight but ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Richard seems stuck in our culture as the real Richard III. Henry V, nee Prince Hal, is, in our minds, the perfect model of kingship after an education gained by indulgence in a misspent youth, and a perfect human being, but that is only because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way Shakespeare chose to present him in the furtherance of the themes he wanted to develop and the dramatic story he wanted to tell. In fact, the popular perception of mediaval history as seen through the rulers of the period is pure Shakespeare. We have given ourselves entirely to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. What would Bolingbroke (Henry IV) mean to us today? We would know nothing of him but because of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays he is an important, memorable and significant historical figure. The history plays are enormously appealing. Not only do they give insight into the political processes of Mediaval and Renaissance politics but they also offer a glimpse of life from the top to the very bottom of society Ã¢â¬â the royal court, the nobility, tavern life, brothels, beggars, everything. The greatest English actual and fictional hero, Henry V and the most notorious fictional bounder, Falstaff, are seen in several scenes together. Not only that, but those scenes are among the most entertaining, profound and memorable in the whole of English literature. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s some achievement. Finally, although adding this at the end of the article and leaving it in the air, several questions are begged: what we see in the plays is not mediaval society at all, but Elizabethan and Jacobean society. Because although Shakespeare was writing Ã¢â¬ËhistoryÃ¢â¬â¢, using historical figures and events, what he was really doing was writing about the politics, entertainments and social situations of his own time. A major feature of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal to his own generation was recognition, somethingShakespeare exploited relentlessly. List of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s History Plays, Henry IV Part 2,Henry V,Henry VI Part 1,Henry VI Part 2,Henry VI Part 3,Henry VIII,King John,Richard II,Richard III. 2) Tragedy; Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, Othello. King Lear Play: Overview Resources The King Lear play is set in the BCE period, somewhere in England, usually thought of as being what is Leicestershire today. The action in the first two acts shifts among the castles of Lear, Gloucester, and those of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s two daughters, Goneril and Regan. The rest of the action takes place in the frozen countryside, mainly on a blasted heath with violent weather, symbolising the state of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Date written: 1603-1606 Genre classification: King Lear is regarded as a Tragedy Main characters in King Lear: King Lear is the king of pre-Christian Britain. He has three daughters Ã¢â¬â Goneril, Regan andCordelia. The Earl of Gloucester is a senior duke in LearÃ¢â¬â¢s kingdom. He has two sons, Edmund, an illegitimate son and Edgar, a legitimate son. The Earl of Kent is a fiercely loyal nobleman, sticking by Lear in spite of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s atrocious treatment of him. The Fool is the court jester, developed well beyond the jesters that appear in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s and other writersÃ¢â¬â¢ earlier plays. King Lear themes: This is a play about family Ã¢â¬â a thorough exploration of family relationships, particularly filial ingratitude, where the cruelty and disregard for their father by Goneril and Regan are contrasted with those of the love and loyalty of Cordelia in spite of the ruthless treatment she has experienced at her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s hands. There is also a deep exploration oflegitimate versus illegitimate offspring. Good versus evil is presented through the evil of the two older sisters against the saintliness of the youngest. Other themes are those of old age and authority. and attitudes to those; pain, justice, and the ever present theme in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays: appearance and reality. King Lear Plot Summary The Earl of Gloucester introduces his illegitimate son, Edmund, to the Earl of Kent at court. Lear, King of Britain, enters. Now that he is old Lear has decided to abdicate, retire, and divide his kingdom between his three daughters. Each will receive a portion of the kingdom according to how much they love him. Goneril, Duchess ofAlbany, the oldest, and Regan, Duchess of Cornwall, the second, both speak eloquently and receive their portion but Cordelia, the youngest, can say nothing. Her declaration that she loves him according to a daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to a father enrages him and she is disowned. One of CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s suitors, the Duke of Burgundy, rejects her once she is dowerless but the King of France understands her declaration and takes her as his wife, while the Earl of Kent is banished for taking CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s part against the King. The kingdom is shared between Goneril and Regan. Lear tells them that he intends to live alternately with each of them. Meanwhile, Edmund is determined to be recognised as a rightful son of Gloucester and persuades his father that his legitimate brother, Edgar, is plotting against GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s life, using a deceitful device. Edmund warns Edgar that his life is in danger. Edgar flees and disguises himself as a beggar. Goneril becomes increasingly exasperated by the behaviour of LearÃ¢â¬â¢s hundred followers, who are disturbing life at AlbanyÃ¢â¬â¢s castle. Kent has returned in disguise and gains a place as a servant to Lear, supporting the King against GonerilÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitious servant, Oswald. Lear eventually curses Goneril and leaves to move in with Regan. Edmund acts as a messenger between the sisters and is courted by each in turn. He persuades Cornwall that Gloucester is an enemy because, through loyalty to his King, Gloucester assists Lear and his devoted companion, the Fool, when they are turned away by Regan and told to return to GonerilÃ¢â¬â¢s household. Despairing of his daughters and regretting his rejection of Cordelia, Lear goes out into the wilderness during a fierce storm. He goes mad. Gloucester takes them into a hut for shelter and seeks the aid of Kent to get them away to the coast, where Cordelia has landed with a French army to fight for her father against her sisters and their husbands. Edgar, pretending to be mad, has also taken refuge in the shelter and the Fool, the mad king and the beggar are companions until Edgar finds his father wandering and in pain. Gloucester has been blinded by Regan and Cornwall for his traitorous act in helping Lear. Cornwall has been killed by a servant after blinding Gloucester but Regan continues to rule with EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Not recognised by his father, Edgar leads him to the coast and helps him, during the journey, to come to an acceptance of his life. Gloucester meets the mad Lear on Dover beach, near CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s camp and, with KentÃ¢â¬â¢s aid, Lear is rescued and re-united with Cordelia. Gloucester, although reconciled with Edgar, dies alone. The French forces are defeated by AlbanyÃ¢â¬â¢s army led by Edmund, and Lear and Cordelia are captured. Goneril has poisoned Regan in jealous rivalry for EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s attention but Edgar, disguised now as a loyal knight, challenges Edmund to a duel and wounds him mortally. Seeing no way out, Goneril kills herself. The dying Edmund confesses his crimes, but it is too late to save Cordelia from the hangman. LearÃ¢â¬â¢s heart breaks as he carries the body of his beloved daughter in his arms, and Albany and Edgar are left to re-organise the kingdom. Hamlet Play: Overview Resources for ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet Shakespeare sets his Hamlet play in the cold, dark isolation of Elsinor a bleak, snow-covered region of Denmark. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the royal court of the King of Denmark. The atmosphere is established on the cold, windy battlements of the castle. Most of the action takes place in theinterior rooms and corridors of the castle and one scene is set in a nearby cemetery. Date written: 1601 Genre classification: Hamlet is regarded as one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies. Main characters in Hamlet: Hamlet, the son of the recently murdered King is the heir to the throne. Hehas had the crown stolen from him by his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s villainous brother, Claudius whom thelate kingÃ¢â¬â¢s widow, Gertrude Ã¢â¬â HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mother Ã¢â¬â has married. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost tellshim on the battlements that Claudius murdered him. Hamlet is continuously spied on by Polonius, the garrulous Lord Chamberlain of Denmark. His eavesdropping results in his being accidentally killed by Hamlet. Ophelia is PoloniusÃ¢â¬â¢ daughter. Led on to a possible relationship by Hamlet, then rejected, she commits suicide by drowning. Her brother, Laertesseeks revenge by plotting with Claudius to kill Hamlet. Other characters are HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, Horatio, in whom he confides, Rosencranz and Guidenstern, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s fellow university students, who spy on Hamlet for Claudius, a troupe of strolling actors and a pair of gravediggers. See a full list of characters in Hamlet. Hamlet Themes: The play falls into the genre of the Revenge Tragedy, which was very popular in the Jacobean era with its taste for violence and intrigue. Revenge is the most obvious, and one of the main, themes of the play. Although explorations of the idea of appearance and reality are present in all ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays, itÃ¢â¬â¢s more fully developed in Hamlet, with all itÃ¢â¬â¢s plotting, intrigues, deceit and hypocrisy. Other themes are the question of what a human being is; death and mortality and suicide. In common with several other Shakespeare plays, there is a clear Christian parallel. Hamlet Plot Summary Prince HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s student friend, Horatio, goes to the battlements of DenmarkÃ¢â¬â¢s Elsinore castle late at night to meet the guards. They tell him about a ghost they have seen that resembles the late king, Hamlet. It reappears and they decide to tell the prince. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle, Claudius, having become king, has now married HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s widowed mother, Gertrude. In the court, after envoys are sent to Norway, the prince is dissuaded from returning to university. Hamlet still mourns his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and hearing of the ghost from Horatio he determines to see it for himself. Laertes, son of the courtier, Polonius, departs for France, warning his sister, Ophelia, against thinking too much of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s attentions. The ghost appears to Hamlet and tells him that he was murdered by Claudius. The prince swears vengeance and his friends are sworn to secrecy as Hamlet decides to feign madness while he tests the truth of the ghostÃ¢â¬â¢s allegations. He rejects Ophelia, as Claudius and Polonius spy on him seeking to find a reason for his sudden strange behaviour. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz, former student friends of Hamlet, are summoned by Claudius and their arrival coincides with that of a group of travelling actors. The prince knows these players well and they rehearse together before arranging to present HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of play before the king and queen, which will include scenes close to the circumstances of the old kingÃ¢â¬â¢s death. At the performance Hamlet watches closely as Claudius is provoked into interrupting the play and storming out, resolving to send the prince away to England. Hamlet is summoned by his distressed mother and, onÃ the way he spares Claudius whom he sees kneeling, attempting to pray. To kill him while he is praying would send his soul to heaven rather than to the hell he deserves. Polonius hides in GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s room to listen to the conversation, but Hamlet detects movement as he upbraids his mother. He stabs the concealing tapestry and so kills the old man. The ghost reappears, warning his son not to delay revenge, nor to upset his mother. As the army of NorwayÃ¢â¬â¢s King Fortinbras crosses Denmark to attack Poland, Hamlet is sent to England, ostensibly as an ambassador, but he discovers ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to have him killed. Outwitting this plot Hamlet returns alone, sending Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to their deaths in his stead. During HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s absence Ophelia goes mad as a result of her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and she is drowned. Hamlet returns and meets Horatio in the graveyard. With the arrival of OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral Hamlet confronts Laertes who, after attempting a revolt against Claudius, has taken his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s place at the court. A duel is arranged between Hamlet and Laertes at which Claudius has plotted for Hamlet to die either on a poisoned rapier, or from poisoned wine. The plans go wrong and both Laertes and Hamlet are wounded, while Gertrude unwittingly drinks from the poisoned cup. Hamlet, in his death throes, kills Claudius, and Horatio is left to explain the truth to the new king, Fortinbras, who returns, victorious, from the Polish wars. Macbeth Play: Overview Resources The main source for ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth play was HolinshedÃ¢â¬â¢s Chronicles. Holinshed in turn took the account from a Scottish history, Scotorum Historiae, written in 1527 by Hector Boece. Shakespeare, flattering James 1, referred to the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s own books, Discovery of Witchcraft and Daemonologie, written in 1599. Some of the main ideas of Macbeth are Nature, Manhood and Light versus Dark. In Macbeth, the murder of a king by one of his subjects is seen as unnatural and the images ofthe play reflect this theme, with disruptions of nature, like storms Ã¢â¬â and events such as where the horses turn on their grooms and bite them. In Macbeth Shakespeareexplores what it is to be a man. Lady Macbeth accuses Macbeth of being unmanly because of his hesitation in killing Duncan, but Macbeth says that itÃ¢â¬â¢s unmanly for a man to kill his king. Shakespeare plays with that paradox. Duncan is a good king and a good man, and he is surrounded by images of light. Macbethand Lady Macbeth turn their surroundings into a picture of hell, blanketed in darkness. Those images of light and dark interact throughout the play. Traditionally, there is a curse on Macbeth. Actors and productioncrews perpetuate the superstition by avoiding using the playÃ¢â¬â¢s title, Macbeth, which is considered bad luck. It has to be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The Scottish PlayÃ¢â¬ . Date written: 1605 Read the full Macbeth text Genre classification: Macbeth is regarded as a tragedy. Macbeth Characters: The hero, Macbeth, the Thane of Glamys and later Thane of Cawdor, murders the king, Duncan, and is elected as king in his place. Lady Macbeth, his wife, is his co-conspirator in the murder. DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s sons, Malcolm and Donalblain, themselves in danger, flee. Banquo, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, is also murdered by Macbeth. Macduff, the Thane of Fife, suspects Macbeth and his whole family is massacred. Macduff is the man who finally kills Macbeth. There are three witches, who plant the idea of murdering Duncan in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, and they lead him on to his destruction. Their queen is Hecate. Other characters are the Scottlish noblemen, Lennox and Ross, and the English general, Siward and his son, Young Siward. See a full list of Macbeth characters. Themes in Macbeth: The main themes in Macbeth are ambition and guilt. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëoverweening ambition leads him to kill Duncan and from then on until the end of the play he suffers unendurable guilt. Another theme is that of appearance and reality. Of all ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s characters, Macbeth has the most difficulty in distinguishing between what is real and what is not. Macbeth Plot Summary King DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s generals, Macbeth and Banquo, encounter three strange women on a bleak Scottish moorland on their way home from quelling a rebellion. The women prophesy that Macbeth will be given the title of Thane of Cawdor and then become King of Scotland, while BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s heirs shall be kings. The generals want to hear more but the weird sisters disappear. Duncan creates Macbeth Thane of Cawdor in thanks for his success in the recent battles and then proposes to make a brief visit to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s castle. Lady Macbeth receives news from her husband of the prophecy and his new title and she vows to help him become king by any means she can. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s return is followed almost at once by DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival. The Macbeths plot together and later that night, while all are sleeping and after his wife has given the guards drugged wine, Macbeth kills the King and his guards. Lady Macbeth leaves the bloody daggers beside the dead king. Macduff arrives and when the murder is discovered DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s sons, Malcolm and Donalbain flee, fearing for their lives, but they are nevertheless blamed for the murder. Macbeth is elected King of Scotland, but is plagued by feelings of guilt and insecurity. He arranges for Banquo and his son, Fleance to be killed, but the boy escapes the murderers. At a celebratory banquet Macbeth sees the ghost of Banquo and disconcerts the courtiers with his strange manner. Lady Macbeth tries to calm him but is rejected. Macbeth seeks out the witches and learns from them that he will be safe until Birnam Wood comes to his castle, Dunsinane. They tell him that he need fear no-one born of woman, but also that the Scottish succession will come from BanquoÃ¢â¬â¢s son. Macbeth embarks on a reign of terror and many, including MacduffÃ¢â¬â¢s family are murdered, while Macduff himself has gone to join Malcolm at the court of the English king, Edward. Malcolm and Macduff decide to lead an army against Macbeth. Macbeth feels safe in his remote castle at Dunsinane until he is told that Birnam Wood is moving towards him. The situation is that MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s army is carrying branches from the forest as camouflage for their assault on the castle. Meanwhile Lady Macbeth, paralysed with guilt, walks in her sleep and gives away her secrets to a listening doctor. She kills herself as the final battle commences. Macduff challenges Macbeth who, on learning his adversary is the child of a Ceasarian birth, realises he is doomed. Macduff triumphs and brings the head of the traitor to Malcolm who declares peace and is crowned king. Othello Play: Overview Resources The Othello play begins in Venice where there is a wealthy, well ordered, well behaved community, controlled by strong laws and established conventions.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The first time I happened to know about computer networks was when in my third semester, I attended a lecture on networking by one of the university professors. This lecture had left me awed. With the increased curiosity in this field of networking, I enrolled myself in a course called "Networks". Within this course, I got an opportunity to work on various switched networks, FTP, DNS, DHCP, NFS and Telnet configurations, shell programming, apache web server, structured cabling, firewall services, configuring send mail and some countermeasures for hacking. The ample amount of hands-on experience and tests that they had made us take, was sufficient to evoke a propensity towards networking. Since then, there has been no looking back. Very early in my life I realised my penchant for engineering which made me take up diploma in electronics and communication right after school. The experience of studying in a prestigious institute like Vivekanand Education SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Polytechnic, Mumbai, acted as a web where engineering concepts gripped my mind. Subjects such as Computer fundamentals and Digital communications compelled me to dig deeper and explore more into this field. I ranked 2nd in the institute and 16th in the final academic year across the Maharashtra state, is a testimony to the fact that I strive to do my best at anything that I commit to. This helped me build a strong foundation which in turn opened the doors to Sardar Patel Institute of Technology, one of the premier institutes affiliated to Mumbai University, to pursue my degree in Electronics and Telecommunication engineering. My experience as an undergraduate student at this institute has played a vital role in shaping my interest towards networki ng. The rigorous curriculum ... ...ffered by Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the North Carolina State University being particularly in tune with global industry demands and recent developments will undoubtedly provide me with unique learning opportunities. I see at the North Carolina State University the chance to acquire the skills that will allow me to develop as a true leader in my professional realm through my exposure to on-going research initiatives such as the work being carried out by Dr.Jayant Baliga in the scope of Networking. I desire to pursue PhD in network securities taking my interest further in this field. As a high-achiever and an individual driven by her passion, I am determined to make the most of every opportunity provided to me. I can assure you that my admission into your UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s MS program will be met with the highest level of commitment and dedication. Essay -- The first time I happened to know about computer networks was when in my third semester, I attended a lecture on networking by one of the university professors. This lecture had left me awed. With the increased curiosity in this field of networking, I enrolled myself in a course called "Networks". Within this course, I got an opportunity to work on various switched networks, FTP, DNS, DHCP, NFS and Telnet configurations, shell programming, apache web server, structured cabling, firewall services, configuring send mail and some countermeasures for hacking. The ample amount of hands-on experience and tests that they had made us take, was sufficient to evoke a propensity towards networking. Since then, there has been no looking back. Very early in my life I realised my penchant for engineering which made me take up diploma in electronics and communication right after school. The experience of studying in a prestigious institute like Vivekanand Education SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Polytechnic, Mumbai, acted as a web where engineering concepts gripped my mind. Subjects such as Computer fundamentals and Digital communications compelled me to dig deeper and explore more into this field. I ranked 2nd in the institute and 16th in the final academic year across the Maharashtra state, is a testimony to the fact that I strive to do my best at anything that I commit to. This helped me build a strong foundation which in turn opened the doors to Sardar Patel Institute of Technology, one of the premier institutes affiliated to Mumbai University, to pursue my degree in Electronics and Telecommunication engineering. My experience as an undergraduate student at this institute has played a vital role in shaping my interest towards networki ng. The rigorous curriculum ... ...ffered by Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the North Carolina State University being particularly in tune with global industry demands and recent developments will undoubtedly provide me with unique learning opportunities. I see at the North Carolina State University the chance to acquire the skills that will allow me to develop as a true leader in my professional realm through my exposure to on-going research initiatives such as the work being carried out by Dr.Jayant Baliga in the scope of Networking. I desire to pursue PhD in network securities taking my interest further in this field. As a high-achiever and an individual driven by her passion, I am determined to make the most of every opportunity provided to me. I can assure you that my admission into your UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s MS program will be met with the highest level of commitment and dedication.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This is an action research project by a group of students taking up Master of Arts in Teaching and Leadership from Saint Francis University in Chicago, Illinois. It focuses on the use of guided reading in the improvement of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s reading comprehension and fluency as summarized in the title.Chapter one of the research report begins with a general statement of the problem and focuses on the immediate problem context which are Sites A and B. It describes each school site in terms of its physical structure, profile and salaries of teachers and staff, profile of students, and profile of the district population as well as the profile of its surrounding community.It also points out the national context of the problem and how teachers of the concerned schools can solve the problem. At this point, the researchers included related studies and related literature on the procedures and benefits of guided reading.Chapter two presents the documentation of evidences on the problem. It pre sents a result of a teacher survey which proved the existence of the problem on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ reading comprehension and fluency. Research studies on the problem that were conducted by other researchers are revealed. Furthermore, the possible causes of the problem are also discussed.Chapter three provides the strategy for solving the existing problem and it deliberates the literature review on guided reading. It has specified the procedural details, the persons involved and the time frame of the research project. Ã It also presents in a table a detailed action plan which includes the objectives, interventions, targeted group behaviour, teacher/ researcher behaviour, materials and time duration. The methods of assessment are also given.Chapter four imparts the steps that were done to collect data, the results of the project, the conclusions and recommendations and the reflections of the teacher researchers. It concludes Ã¢â¬Å"that the guided reading intervention using levell ed texts was highly successful in addressing the problem of the reading comprehension and fluency of grades 2 and 4.Ã¢â¬ Thus, they recommend this reading intervention to those teachers whose students are having problems in reading comprehension and fluency.The researchers have been impersonal in writing the four chapters. However, it became personal when they wrote their reflections on the end part of the paper. There was an inconsistency in the pronouns used because of the 1st person personal pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ used on page 31. There are approximately four times more active voice clauses than passive voice clauses in the text. In fact, they are too many to be counted.The paper has been objective in presenting information whether from the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ data gathering or information from other authors. In reporting facts and data, the writers were neutral in their attitude. Indeed, the text has an average degree of formality. Though, it cannot be highly formal because of the personal nature of its closing part.The text has used grammatical cohesive devices such as the linking signals: additionally (10), in conclusion (14), the first Ã¢â¬ ¦, the secondÃ¢â¬ ¦(16), the thirdÃ¢â¬ ¦ (17), during week two (41), in week four, the following week (42), and many more. It also used substitution such as Ã¢â¬Å"this problemÃ¢â¬ to refer to the below grade level expectancy on reading tasks of students in grades 2 and 4 (1) and Ã¢â¬Å"as stated aboveÃ¢â¬ to refer to Ã¢â¬Å"helping readers develop independent, effective strategies (12).Ã¢â¬ A few of the lexical cohesive devices used in the text are the repetition of phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"guided readingÃ¢â¬ (10-13) and Ã¢â¬Å"thirst for readingÃ¢â¬ (13).
Monday, January 6, 2020
Instruments of national power encompass all of the means available to a government in its pursuit of national objectives. It is expressed as diplomatic, economic, informational and military aspects. Of the four instruments of national power, the military instrument has had the most impact on the cycle of Western interaction with the rest of the world. Military strength generally determines the ability of one nation to impose its will upon another nation. Many military advancements allowed the West to become the first to explore the world and, eventually, to dominate these nations. This use of the military instrument of national power was continued when the developing world used this instrument to free themselves, or, in some cases, attempt to free themselves, from Western influence. 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